Aero Thermodynamics

Dr. Richard C. Miake-Lye
Ph.D, Applied Physics, Stanford University

Dr. Miake-Lye’s work is directed toward understanding the environmental impact of airplanes, focusing on the physical and chemical evolution of exhaust flowing from propulsion systems. Field studies, such as APEX1-3, AAFEX, and several military engine tests, as well as sub-scale physical models, and numerical models have been pursued to assess problems related to system performance, engine emissions characterization, and contrail formation. A tunable diode measurement technique for trace gas emissions has been developed and is being applied in support of the emissions characterization effort. In addition, a new Aerodyne measurement technology, the Aerosol Mass Spectrometer, is being applied to characterizing the particle emissions from aircraft engines. Additional advanced techniques are being developed for both particle and gaseous species measurements in parallel with on-going improvements in related microphysical modeling. One major thrust of these efforts is to understand the effects of emissions from gas-turbine engines powering the commercial aviation fleet, both existing and planned, on the global atmosphere and as a contributor to regional air quality. In addition to these research efforts, Dr. Miake-Lye serves on the SAE E-31 committee, Aircraft Engine Emissions Measurement, and was committee chair for five years. This committee writes Aerospace Information Reports and Aerospace Recommended Practices specifying measurement procedures for characterizing emissions from aircraft engines. He is currently Research Focal Point for Local Air Quality to the International Civil Aviation Organization’s (ICAO’s) Committee on Aviation Environmental Protection (CAEP), and supports its working groups on environmental issues.

  • Fred Bacon, Aerodyne Research, Inc.
  • Edward Fortner, Aerodyne Research, Inc.
  • Scott Herndon, Aerodyne Research, Inc.
  • Timothy Onasch, Aerodyne Research, Inc.
  • Brian Heffernan, Aerodyne Research, Inc.
  • Hsi-Wu Wong, University of Mass – Lowell
  • Berk Knighton, Montana State College
  • David Lewis, Connecticut College
  • Michael Timko, Worcester Polytechnic Institute
  • Ian Waitz, Massachusetts Institute of Technology
  • Philip Whitefield, University of Missouri Science and Technology
  • Zenhong Yu, Hudson River Research LLC

Mode-specific, semi-volatile chemical composition of particulate matter emissions from a commercial gas turbine aircraft engine, Z. Yu, M. Timko, S. Herndon, R. Miake-Lye, A. Beyersdorft, L. Ziemba, E. Winstead, B. Anderson, Atmos Environ., 218, 11674, 2019.

SCOPE11 method for estimating aircraft black carbon mass and particle number emissions, A. Agarwal, R. Speth, T. Fritz, S. Jacob, T. Rindlisbacher, R. Iovinelli, B. Owen, R. Miake-Lye, J. Sabnis, S. Barrett, Environ. Sci. Tech. 53, 1364-1473, 2019.

A single-pass RGB differential photoacoustic spectrometer (RGB-DPAS) for aerosol absorption measurement at 473, 532, 671 nm, Z. Yu, G. Magoon, J. Assif, W. Brown, R. Miake-Lye, 1, 94-105, 2019.

Differential photoacoustic spectroscopic (DPAS) – based technique for PM optical absorption measurements in the presence of light absorbing gaseous species, Z. Yu, J. Assif, G. Magoon, P. Kebabian, W. Brown, W. Rundgren, J. Peck, R. Miake-Lye, D. Liscinsky, B. True, Aerosol Sci and Tech. 51, 1438-1447, 2017.

Evaluation of PM emissions from two in-service gas turbine general aviation aircraft engines, Yu, Z., Liscinsky, D., Fortner, E., Yacovitch, T. , Croteau, P., Herndon, S.C., Miake-Lye, R., Atmos. Environ., 160, 9-18, 2017.

Detailed analysis of species production from the pyrolysis of the Phenolic Impregnated Carbon Ablator, Wong, H., Peck, J., Assif, J., Panerai, F., Lachaud, J., Mansour, N., J. Anal. Appl. Pyro., 122, 258-267, 2016.

Supercritical water treatment of crude oil and Hexylbenzene: An experiment and mechanistic study on alkylbenzene decomposition, A. G. Carr, C. A. Class, L. Lai, Y. Kida, T. Monrose, W. H. Green, Energy Fuels, 29, 5290-5302, 2015.

JP-10 combustion studied with shock tube experiments and modeled with automatic reaction mechanism generation, C. W. Gao, A. G. Vandeputte, N. W. Yee, W. H. Green, R. E. Bonomi, G. R. Magoon, H.-W. Wong, O. O. Oluwole, D. K. Lewis, N. M. Vandewiele, K. M. Van Geem, Combust. Flame, 162, 3115–3129, 2015.

Measurement of Aircraft Engine Non-Volatile PM Emissions: Results of the Aviation-Particle Regulatory Instrumentation Demonstration Experiment (A-PRIDE) 4 Campaign, P. Lobo, L. Durdina, G. J. Smallwood, T. Rindlisbacher, F. Siegerist, E. A. Black, Z. Yuh, A. A. Mensahi, D. E. Hagen, R. C. Miake-Lye, K. A. Thomson, B. T. Brem, J. C. Corbin, M. Abegglen, B. Sierau, P. D. Whitefield, J. Wang, Aerosol Sci. Technol., 49, 472-484, 2015.

Analysis of Test-Cell Emission Measurements of Newly Overhauled Turbofan Engines, E. T. Turgut, M. Cavcar, O. D. Yay, M. Ucarsu, E. Yilmaz, O. Usanmaz, K. Armutlu, T. Dogeroglu, R. C. Miake-Lye, J. Propul. Power, 31, 559-572, 2015.

Quantitative determination of species production from phenol-formaldehyde resin pyrolysis, H.-W. Wong, J. Peck, R. E. Bonomi, J. Assif, F. Panerai, G. Reinisch, J. Lachaud, N. N. Mansour, Polym. Degrad. Stab., 112, 122–131, 2015.

Roles of Organic Emissions in the Formation of Near Field Aircraft Emitted Volatile Particulate Matter: A Kinetic Microphysical Modeling Study, H.-W. Wong, M. Jun, J. Peck, I. A. Waitz, R. C. Miake-Lye, J. Eng. Gas Turbines Power, 137, 072606, 2015.

Detailed Microphysical Modeling of the Formation of Organic and Sulfuric Acid Coatings on Aircraft Emitted Soot Particles in the Near Field, H.-W. Wong, M. Jun, J. Peck, I. A. Waitz, R. C. Miake-Lye, Aerosol Sci. Technol., 48, 981-995, 2014.

Uptake Coefficients of Some Volatile Organic Compounds by Soot and Their Application in Understanding Particulate Matter Evolution in Aircraft Engine Exhaust Plumes, Z. Yu, D. S Liscinsky, B. True, J. Peck, A. C. Jennings, H.-W. Wong, M. Jun, J. Franklin, S. C. Herndon, I. A Waitz, R. C. Miake-Lye, J. Eng. Gas Turbines Power, 136, 121501, 2014.

Composition and Sources of the Organic Particle Emissions from Aircraft Engines, M. T. Timko, S. E. Albo, T. B. Onasch, E. C. Fortner, Z.Yu, R. C. Miake-Lye, M. R. Canagaratna, N. L. Ng, D. R. Worsnop, Aerosol Sci. Technol., 48, 61-73, 2014.

Reductions in aircraft particulate emissions due to the use of
Fischer–Tropsch fuels, 
A. J. Beyersdorf, M. T. Timko, L. D. Ziemba, D. Bulzan, E. Corporan, S. C. Herndon, R. Howard, R. Miake-Lye, K. L. Thornhill, E. Winstead, C. Wey, Z. Yu, B. E. Anderson, Atmos. Chem. Phys., 14, 11-23, 2014.

ACRP Report 97: Measuring PM emissions from aircraft suxiliary power units, tires, and brakes, P. Lobo, P. D. Whitefield, D. E. Hagen, R. C. Miake-Lye, S. C. Herndon, J. P. Franklin, E. C. Fortner, M. T. Timko, W. B. Knighton, S. Webb, R. J. Hoffelt, Airport Cooperative Research Program, Transportation Research Board, Washington DC, 2013.

Laboratory and modeling studies on the effects of water and soot emissions and ambient conditions on the properties of contrail ice particles in the jet regime, H.-W. Wong, A. J. Beyersdorf, C. M. Heath, L. D. Ziemba, E. I. Winstead, K. L. Thornhill, K. M. Tucina, R. C. Ross, S. E. Albo, D. L. Bulzau, B. E. Anderson, R. C. Miake-Lye, Atmos. Chem. Phys., 13, 10049-10060, 2013.

Online measurements of the emissions of intermediate-volatility and semi-volatile organic compounds from aircraft, E. S. Cross, J. F. Hunter, A. J. Carrasquillo, J. P. Franklin, S. C. Herndon, J. T. Jayne, D. R. Worsnop, R. C. Miake-Lye, and J. H. Kroll, Atmos. Chem. Phys., 13, 7845-7858, 2013.

Gaseous Aerosol Precursors, R. Miake-Lye, pp154-174, in Gas Turbine Emissions, T. C. Lieuwen, V. Yang, eds., Cambridge University Press, 2013.

An algorithm to estimate aircraft cruise black carbon emissions for use in developing a cruise emissions inventory, J. Peck, O. O. Oluwole, H.-Wu Wong & R. C. Miake-Lye,  J. Air Waste Manage. Assoc. 63, 367-375, 2013.

Atmospheric measurements of the physical evolution of aircraft exhaust plumes, M. T. Timko , E. Fortner , J. Franklin , Z. Yu , H. -W. Wong , T. B. Onasch , R. C. Miake-Lye , S. C. Herndon, Environ. Sci. Tech., 47, 3513-3520, 2013.

Measurement of naphthalene uptake by combustion soot particles, D. S. Liscinsky, Z. Yu, B. True, J. Peck, A. C. Jennings, H.-W. Wong, J. Franklin, S. C. Herndon, and R. C. Miake-Lye, Environ. Sci. Tech., 47, 4875-4881, 2013.

Probing the chemical nature of dihydrogen complexation to transition metals, a gas phase case study: H2–CuF, D. J. Frohman, G. S. Grubbs, Z. Yu, S. E. Novick, Inorganic Chemistry, 52, 816-822, 2013.

Global sensitivity analysis of the regional atmospheric chemical mechanism: An application of random sampling-high dimensional model representation to urban oxidation chemistry, S. Chen, W. H. Brune, O. O. Oluwole, C. E. Kolb, F. Bacon, G. Li, H. Rabitz, Environ. Sci. Tech., 46, 11162-11170, 2012.

Identification of lubrication oil in the particulate matter emissions from engine exhaust of in-service commercial aircraft, Z. Yu, S. C. Herndon, L. D. Ziemba, M. T. Timko, D. S. Liscinsky, B. E. Anderson, R. C. Miake-Lye, Environ. Sci. Tech., 46, 9630-9637, 2012.

Power-dependent speciation of volatile organic compounds in aircraft exhaust, A. J. Beyersdorf, K. L. Thornhill, E. L. Winstead, L. D. Ziemba, D. R. Blake, M. T. Timko, B. E. Anderson, Atmos. Environ., 61, 276-282, 2012.

Oxidative Desulfurization of Middle-Distillate Fuels Using Activated Carbon and Power Ultrasound, L. A. Gonzales, P. Kracke, W. H. Green, J. W. Tester, L. M. Shafer, M. T. Timko, Energy Fuels, 26, 5164-5176, 2012.

ACRP Report 63: Measurement of Gaseous HAP Emissions from Idling Aircraft as a Function of Engine and Ambient Conditions, S. Herndon, E. Wood, J. Franklin, R. Miake-Lye, W. B. Knighton, M. Babb, A. Nakahara, T. Reynolds, H. Balakrishnan,  112p. (2012).  Airport Cooperative Research Program, Transportation Research Board, Washington, DC

Accelerating multi-dimensional combustion simulations using GPU and hybrid explicit/implicit ODE integration, Y. Shi, W. H. Green, H. W. Wong, O. O. Oluwole, Combust. Flame, 159, 2388-2397, 2012.

An exact-steady-state adaptive chemistry method for combustion simulations: Combining the efficiency of reduced models and the accuracy of the full model, 
O. O. Oluwole, Y. Shi, H. W. Wong, W. H. Green, Combust. Flame, 159, 2352-2362, 2012.

Measurement of volatile particulate matter emissions from aircraft engines using a simulated plume aging system
, J. Peck, M. T. Timko, Z. Yu, H.-W. Wong, S. C. Herndon, P. E. Yelvington, R. C. Miake-Lye, C. Wey, E. L. Winstead, L. D. Ziemba, B. E. Anderson, J. Eng. Gas Turbines Power, 134, 061503, 2012.

Determination of the emissions from an aircraft auxiliary power unit (APU) during the Alternative Aviation Fuel Experiment (AAFEX), J. S. Kinsey, M. T. Timko, S. C. Herndon, E. C. Wood, Z. Yu, R. C. Miake-Lye, P. Lobo, P. Whitefield, D. Hagen, C. Wey, B. E. Anderson, A. J. Beyersdorf, C. H. Hudgins, K. L. Thornhill, E. Winstead, R. Howard, D. I. Bulzan, K. B. Tacina,  W. B. Knighton, J. Air Waste Manage. Assoc. 62, 420-430, 2012.

Detailed chemical kinetic modeling of JP-10 (exo-tetrahydrodicyclopentadiene) high-temperature oxidation: Exploring the role of biradical species in initial decomposition steps, G. R. Magoon, J. Aguilera-Iparraguirre, W. H. Green, J. J. Lutz, P. Piecuch, H.-W. Wong, Ol Ol Oluwole, Int. J. Chem. Kinet., Special Issue: 7th International Conf. on Chemical Kinetics, 44, 179-193, 2012.

Direct Measurement of Aircraft Engine Soot Emissions Using a Cavity-Attenuated Phase Shift (CAPS)-Based Extinction Monitor, Z.. Yu, L. D. Ziemba, T. B. Onasch, S. C. Herndon, S. E. Albo, R. Miake-Lye, B. E. Anderson, P. L. Kebabian, A. Freedman, Aerosol Sci. Tech., 45, 1319-1325, 2011.

The Aerodyne Inverse Modeling System (AIMS): Source estimation applied to the FFT07 esperiment and to simulated mobile sensor data, S. E. Albo, O. O. Oluwole, R. C. Miake-Lye, Atmos. Environ. 45, 6085-6092, 2011.

Combustion products of petroleum jet fuel, a Fischer-Tropsch synthetic fuel, and a biomass fatty acid methyl ester fuel for a gas turbine engine, M. T. Timko, S. C. Herndon, E. de la Rosa Blanco, E. C. Wood, Z. Yu, R. C. Miake-Lye, W. B. Knighton, L. Shafer, M. J. DeWitt, E. Corporan, Comb. Sci. Tech. 183, 1039-1068, 2011.

Measurements of nitrous acid in commercial aircraft exhaust at the alternative aviation fuel experiment, B. H. Lee, G. W. Santoni, E. C. Wood, S. C. Herndon, R. C. Miake-Lye, M. S. Zahniser, S. C. Wofsy, J. W. Munger, Environ. Sci. Tech, 45, 7648-7651, 2011.

Reactive chemistry in aircraft Exhaust: Implications for air quality, B. H. Lee, E. C. Wood, R. C. Miake-Lye, S. C. Herndon, J. W. Munger, S. C. Wofsy, J. Transport. Res. Bd., 2206, 19-23, 2011.

Aircraft Emissions of methane and nitrous oxide during the alternative aviation fuel experiment, G. W. Santoni, B. H. Lee, E. C. Wood, S. C. Herndon, R. C. Miake-Lye, S. S. Wofsy, J. B. McManus, D. D. Nelson, M. S. Zahniser, Environ. Sci. Tech., 45, 7075-7082, 2011.

Redesigning combustion modeling algorithms for the Graphics Processing Unit (GPU): Chemical kinetic rate evaluation and ordinary differential equation integration, Y. Shi, W. H. Green Jr., H.-W. Wong, O. O. Oluwole, Combust. Flame, 158, 836-847, 2011.

Design and characterization of a liquid-fueled microcombustor, J. Peck, S. A. Jacobson, I. A. Waltz, J. Eng. Gas Turb. Power, 133, 072301 (10 pages), 2011.

Minimizing sampling loss in trace gas emission measurements for aircraft engines by using a chemical quick-quench probe,  E. De la Rosa Blanco, J. Peck, R. C. Miake-Lye, F. B. Hills, E. C. Wood, S. C. Herndon, K. D. Annen, P. E. Yelvington, T. Leach, J. Eng. Turb. Power, 133, 1071602 (7 pages), 2011.

Design parameters for an aircraft engine exit plane particle sampling system, H. W. Wong, Z. Yu, M. T. Timko, S. C. Herndon, E. de la Rosa Blanco, R. C. Miake-Lye, J. Eng. Gas Turb. Power, 133, (2), 021501 (15), 2011.

Characterization of lubrication oil emissions from aircraft engines, Z. Yu, D. S. Liscinsky, E. L. Winstead, B. S. True, M. T. Timko, A Bhargava, S. C. Herndon, R. C. Miake-Lye, B. E. Anderson, Environ. Sci, Tech. 44, 9530-9534, 2010.

Particulate emissions of gas turbine engine combustion of a Fischer-Tropsch synthetic fuel, M. T. Timko, Z. Yu, T. B. Onasch, H.-W. Wong, R. C. Miake-Lye, A. J. Beyersdorf, B. E. Anderson, K. L. Thornhill, E. L. Winstead, E. Corporan, M. J. DeWitt, C. D. Klingshirn, C. Wey, K. Tacina, D. S. Liscinsky, R. Howard, A. Bhargava, Energy & Fuels, 24, 5883-5896, 2010.

Global sensitivity analysis for systems with independent and/or correlated inputs, G. Li, H. Rabitz, P. E. Yelvington, O. O. Oluwole, F. Bacon, C. E. Kolb, J. Phys. Chem. A, 114, 6022-6032, 2010.

Gas turbine engine emissions – Part I: Volatile organic compounds and nitrogen oxides, M. T. Timko, S. C. Herndon, E. C. Wood, T. B. Onasch, M. J. Northway, J. T. Jayne, M. R. Canagaratna, R. C. Miake-Lye, W. B. Knighton, J. Eng. Gas Turb. Power, 132, 06154 (14 pages), 2010.

Gas turbine engine emissions – Part II: Chemical properties of particulate matter, M. T. Timko, T. B. Onasch, M. J. Northway, J. T. Jayne, M. R. Canagaratna, S. C. Herndon, E. C. Wood, R. C. Miake-Lye, W. B. Knighton, J. Eng. Gas Turb. Power, 132, 061505 (15 pages), 2010.

Parametric studies of contrail ice particle formation in jet regime using microphysical parcel modeling, H.-W. Wong, R. C. Miake-Lye, Atmos. Chem. Phys., 10, 3261-3272, 2010.

Global sensitivity analysis for systems with independent and/or correlated inputs, G. Li, H. Rabitz, P. E. Yelvington, O. O. Oluwole, F. Bacon, C. E. Kolb, J. Schoendorf, J. Phys. Chem. A., 114,  6022-6032, 2010.

Adaptation of a proton transfer reaction mass spectrometer instrument to employ NO+ as reagent ion for the detection of 1,3-butadiene in the ambient atmosphere, W. B. Knighton, E. C. Fortner, S. C. Herndon, E. C. Wood, R. C. Miake-Lye, Rapid Commun. Mass Spectrom., 23, 3301-3308, 2009.

Chemical properties of aircraft engine particulate exhaust emissions, T. B. Onasch, J. T. Jayne, S. Herndon, D. R. Worsnop, R. C. Miake-Lye, J. Propul. Power 25, 1121-1137, 2009.

Sampling artifacts from conductive silicone tubing, M. T. Timko, Z. Yu, J. Kroll, J. T. Jayne, D. R. Worsnop, R. C. Miake-Lye, T. B. Onasch, D. Liscinsky, T. W. Kirchstetter, H. Destaillats, A. L. Holder, J. D. Smith, K. R. Wilson, Aerosol Sci. Tech., 43, 855-865, 2009.

Aircraft hydrocarbon emissions at Oakland International Airport, S. C. Herndon, E. C. Wood, M. J. Northway, R. Miake-Lye, L. Thornhill, A. Beyersdorf, B. E. Anderson, R. Dowlin, W. Dodds, W. B. Knighton, Environ. Sci. Technol., 43, 1730-1736, 2009.

ACRP Report 9: Summarizing and Interpreting Aircraft Gaseous and Particulate Emissions Data, P. D. Whitefield, P. Lobo, D. E. Hagen, M. T. Timko, R. C. Miake-Lye, C. Taylor, G. Ratliff, S. Lukachko, C. Sequeira, J. Hileman, I. Waitz, S. Webb, T. G. Thrasher, M. R. Ohsfeldt, H. K. Kaing, S. C. Essama, 60p. (2008).  Airport Cooperative Research Program, Transportation Research Board, Washington DC

ACRP Report 7: Aircraft and Airport-Related Hazardous Air Pollutants: Research Needs and Analysis, E. Wood, S. Herndon, R. C. Miake-Lye, D. Nelson, M. Seeley,  65p. (2008).  Airport Cooperative Research Program, Transportation Research Board, Washington, DC

ACRP Report 6: Research Needs Associated with Particulate Emissions at Airports, S. Webb, P. D. Whitefield, R. C. Miake-Lye, M. T. Timko, T. G. Thrasher, 59p. (2008), Airport Cooperative Research Program. Transportation Research Board, Washington DC

Engine Design and Operational Impacts on Particulate Matter Precursor Emissions,” S. P. Lukachko, I. A. Waitz, R. C. Miake-Lye, R. C. Brown, J. Eng. Gas Turb. Power 130, 021505 (15 p.), 2008.

Microphysical Modeling of Ground-Level Aircraft-Emitted Aerosol Formation: Roles of Sulfur-Containing Species, H.-W. Wong, P. E. Yelvington, M. T. Timko, T. B. Onasch, R. C. Miake-Lye, J. Propul. Power 24, 590-602, 2008.

Speciation and Chemical Evolution of Nitrogen Oxides in Aircraft Exhaust near Airports, E. C. Wood, S. C. Herndon, M. T. Timko, P. E. Yelvington, R. C. Miake-Lye, Environ. Sci. Technol. 42, 1884-1891, 2008.

Commercial Aircraft Engine Emissions Characterization of in-Use Aircraft at Hartsfield-Jackson Atlanta International Airport, S. C. Herndon, J. T. Jayne, P. Lobo, T. B. Onasch, G. Fleming, D. E. Hagen, P. D. Whitefield, R. C. Miake-Lye, Environ. Sci. Technol. 42, 1877-1883, 2008.

The development of exhaust speciation profiles for commercial jet engines, Final report 04-344, JETS/APEX2.  P. Lobo, P. D. Whitefield,  D. E. Hagen, S. C. Herndon, J. T. Jayne, E. C. Wood, W. B. Knighton, M. J. Northway, R. C. Miake-Lye, D. Cocker, A. Sawant, H. Agrawal and J. W. Miller, 244p., 2007.  Prepared for and available from the California Air Resources Board and the California Environmental Protection Agency.

Laboratory evaluation of an aldehyde scrubber system specifically for the detection of acrolein, W. B. Knighton, S. C. Herndon, J. H. Shorter, R. C. Miake-Lye, M. S. Zahniser, K. Akiyama, A. Shimono, K. Kitasaka, H. Shimajiri, K. Sugihara, J. Air & Waste Manage. Assoc. 57, 1370-1378, 2007.

Overview on the Aircraft Particle Emissions Experiment, C. C. Wey, A. E. Anderson, C. Wey, R. C. Miake-Lye, P. Whitefield, R. Howard, J. Propul. Power, 23, 898-905, 2007.

Nitrogen Oxide (NO/NO2/HONO) Emissions Measurements in Aircraft Exhausts, J. Wormhoudt, S. C. Herndon, P. E. Yelvington, R. C. Miake-Lye, C. Wey, J. Propul. Power, 23, 906-911, 2007.

Chemical Speciation of Hydrocarbon Emissions from a Commercial Aircraft Engine, P. E. Yelvington, S. C. Herndon, J. C. Wormhoudt, J. T. Jayne, R. C. Miake-Lye, W. B. Knighton, C. Wey, J. Propul. Power, 23, 912-918, 2007.

Postcombustion Evolution of Soot Properties in an Aircraft Engine,  P. M. Dajhel, S. P. Lukachko, I. A. Waitz, R. C. Miake-Lye, R. C. Brown, J. Propul. Power, 23, 942-948, 2007.

Quantification of Aircraft Engine Hydrocarbon Emissions Using Proton Transfer Reaction Mass Spectrometry, W. B. Knighton, T. M. Rogers, B. E. Anderson, S. C. Herndon, P. E. Yelvington, R. C. Miake-Lye, J. Propul. Power, 23, 949-958, 2007.

Evolution of Carbonaceous Aerosol and Aerosol Precursor Emissions Through a Jet Engine, K. D. Brundish, A. R. Clague, C. W. Wilson, R. C. Miake-Lye, R. C. Brown, J. Wormhoudt, S. P. Lukachko, A. T. Chobot, C. K. Yam, I. A. Waitz, D. E. Hagen, O. Schmid, P. D. Whitefield, J. Propul. Power, 23, 959-970, 2007.

Hydrocarbon emissions from in-use commercial aircraft during airport operations, S.C. Herdon, T. Rogers, E.J. Dunlea, J.T. Jayne, R. Miake-Lye, B. Knighton, Environ. Sci. Tech., 40, 4416-4413, 2006.

Particulate emissions from in-use commercial aircraft, S.C. Herndon, T.B. Onasch, B.P Frank, L.C. Marr, J.T. Jayne, M.R. Canagaratna, J. Grygas, T. Lanni, B.E. Anderson, D. Worsnop, R.C. Miake-Lye, Aerosol Sci. Tech., 39, 799-809, 2005.

NO and NO2 Emission Ratios Measured from In-Use Commercial Aircraft during Taxi and Takeoff, S.C. Herndon, J.H. Shorter, M.S. Zahniser, D.D. Nelson, J.T. Jayne, R.C. Brown, R.C. Miake-Lye, I. Waitz, P. Silva, T. Lanni, K. Demerjian, C.E. Kolb, Environ. Sci. Technol., 38, 6078-6084, 2004.

Effect of Relative Humidity on the Detection of Sulfur Dioxide and Sulfuric Acid using a Chemical Ionization Mass Spectrometer, D. Salcedo, P.W. Villalta, V. Varutbangkul, J.C. Wormhoudt, R.C. Miake-Lye, D.R. Worsnop, J.O. Ballenthin, W.F. Thorn, A.A. Viggiano, T.M. Miller, R.C. Flagan and J.H. Seinfeld, Int. J. Mass Spectr., 231, 17-30 (2004).

SAE E-31 Committee on Aircraft Exhaust Emission Measurements and an Aerospace Information Report on the Measurement of Non-volatile Particle Emissions, R.C. Miake-Lye, V. Zaccardi, Proceedings of the AAC Conference, June 30 to July 3, 2003, Friedrichshafen, Germany.  European Commission Air Pollution Research Report 83.

Heterogeneous Reactions in Aircraft Gas Turbine Engines, R.C. Brown, R.C. Miake-Lye, S.P. Lukachko, and I.A. Waitz, Geophys. Res. Lett., 29, 10, 2000GL011447, (2002).

A Unified Model for Ultrafine Aircraft Particle Emissions, B. Kärcher, R.P. Turco, F. Yu, M.Y. Danilin, D.K Weisenstein, R.C. Miake-Lye and R. Busen, J. Geophys. Res., 105, 29379-29386 (2000).

Measurement of SO2 and SO3 in Aircraft Engine Exhausts Using a Tunable Diode Laser System, J. Wormhoudt, T.A. Berfkoff, and R.C. Miake-Lye, Symposium on “Laser Applications to Chemical and Environmental Analysis”, 127-129 (2000).

Aviation and the Changing Climate, R.C. Miake-Lye, I. Waitz, D. Fahey, H. Wesoky and C. Wey, Aerospace America, September, 35-29 (2000).

Aircraft Technology and Its Relation to Emissions, J.S. Lewis, R.W. Niedzwiecki, D.W. Bahr, S. Bullock, N. Cumpsty, W. Dodds, D. DuBois, A. Epstein, W.W. Ferguson, A. Fiorentino, A.A. Gorbatko, D.E. Hagen, P.J. Hart, S. Hayashi, J.B. Jamieson, J. Kerrebrock, M. Lecht, B. Lowrie, R.C. Miake-Lye, A.K. Mortlock, C. Moses, K. Renger, S. Sampath, J. Sanborn, B. Simon, A. Sorokin, W. Taylor, I. Waitz, C.C. Wey, P. Whitefield, C.W. Wilson, S. Wu. In Aviation and the Global Atmosphere, J.E. Penner et al., eds., Cambridge Univ. Press, Cambridge UK, 216-270 (1999).

Subsonic Aircraft: Contrail and Cloud Effects Special Study (SUCCESS), O.B. Toon and R.C. Miake-Lye. Geophys. Res. Lett., 25, 1109-1112 (1998).

SOx Oxidation and Volatile Aerosol in Aircraft Exhaust Plumes Depend on Fuel Sulfur Content, R.C. Miake-Lye, B.E. Anderson, W.R. Cofer, H.A. Wallio, G.D. Nowicki, J.O. Ballenthin, D.E. Hunton, W.B. Knighton, T.M. Miller, J.V. Seeley and A.A. Viggiano. Geophys. Res. Lett., 25, 1677-1680 (1998).

Production of Sulfate Aerosol Precursors in the Turbine and Exhaust Nozzle of an Aircraft Engine, S.P. Lukachko, I.A. Waitz, R.C. Miake-Lye, R.C. Brown and M.R. Anderson. J. Geophys. Res., 103, 16159-16174 (1998).

Aircraft Sulfur Emissions and the Formation of Visible Contrails, R.C. Brown, R.C. Miake-Lye, M.R. Anderson and C.E. Kolb, Geophys. Res. Lett., 24, 385-388 (1997).

Aerosol Particle Evolution in an Aircraft Wake: Implications for the High-Speed Civil Transport Fleet Impact on Ozone, M.Y. Danilin, J.M. Rodriguez, M.K.W. Ko, D.K. Weisenstein, R.C. Brown, R.C. Miake-Lye, and M.R. Anderson. J. Geophys. Res., 102, 21453-21463 (1997).

Kinetic Modeling and Sensitivity Analysis for B/H/O/C/F Combustion Systems, R.C. Brown, C.E. Kolb, R.A. Yetter, F.L. Dryer and H. Rabitz, Comb. and Flame, 101, 221-238 (1995).

Infrared Tunable Diode Laser Measurements of Nitrogen Oxide Species in and Aircraft Engine Exhaust, J. Wormhoudt, M.S. Zahniser, D.D. Nelson, J.B. McManus, R.C. Miake-Lye and C.E. Kolb, Conference on Optical Techniques in Thermal, Fluid and Combustion Flows, SPIE 1995 International Symposium on Optical Science, Engineering and Instrumentation, SPIE 2546. (1995).

Studies of Pyrolytic Products in Soil Using Infrared Tunable Diode Laser Detection, J. Wormhoudt, J.H. Shorter and C.E. Kolb, Energetic Materials Symposium, Materials Research Society, 1995 Fall Meeting.

Emission Measurements of the Concorde Supersonic Aircraft in the Lower Stratosphere, D.W. Fahey, E.R. Keim, K.A. Boering, C.A. Brock, J.C. Wilson, H.H. Jonsson, S. Anthony, T.F. Hanisco, P.O. Wennberg, R.C. Miake-Lye, R.J. Salawitch, N. Louisnard, E.L. Woodbridge, R.S. Gao, S.G. Donnelly, R.C. Wamsley, L.A. Del Negro, S. Solomon, B.C. Daube, S.C. Wofsy, C.R. Webster, R.D. May, K.K. Kelly, M. Loewenstein, J.R. Podolske, and K.R. Chan, Science, 270, 70-74 (1995).

Kinetic Model for Hydrocarbon-Assisted Particulate Boron Combustion, R.C. Brown, C.E. Kolb, S.Y. Cho, R.A. Yetter, F.L. Dryer and H. Rabitz, International. J. Chem. Kinetics, 26, 319-332 (1994).

Gas Temperature Measurements Using a Dual-Line Detection Rayleigh Scattering Technique, M.V. Otugen, K.D. Annen and R.G. Seasholtz, AIAA J., 31, 2098 (1993).

Fluid Dynamic and Chemistry Effects on Thrusted Decoy Exhaust Plume IR Intensity, K.D. Annen and E.J. Strang, 20th JANNAF Exhaust Plume Technology Meeting, CPIA Pub 568, p.391, May 1991.

The Center for Aero-Thermodynamics at ARI is active in a variety of research efforts in chemistry, combustion, and particle microphysics where coupled fluid flow and kinetics problems pose complex, interdisciplinary challenges in modeling and experimental measurement. State-of-the-art numerical tools are developed and applied to simulate and analyze phenomena ranging from combustion through aerosol formation and development. Advanced diagnostic measurement techniques are employed in sophisticated small-scale laboratory testing facilities at Aerodyne or taken to government or industry test facilities for problems ranging from engine emission characterization through exhaust system design. Our research efforts include the desulfurization of fossil fuels and the production of synthetic fuels from a variety of unconventional and renewable feedstocks, as well as inverse modeling to characterize emissions sources based on downwind measurements.

Government sponsors include: the National Aeronautics and Space Administration, the Federal Aviation Administration, the Strategic Environmental Research and Development Program, the Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency, Army, Navy and Air Force and by industry sponsors.

Research & Technology Areas

  • Contrail Formation – Chemical and Microphysical Modeling
  • Turbine and Nozzle Chemical Processes
  • Exhaust Afterburning Mechanisms
  • Fast-Time-Response, Sensitive Measurement of Exhaust Pollutant Species
  • Aircraft Plume and Wake Chemistry and Microphysics
  • Forward and inverse atmospheric dispersion modeling
  • Pollutant emission source identification and quantification
  • Detailed chemical reaction mechanism development and reduction
  • Efficiency methods for detailed combustion CFD simulation
  • Parameter estimation; optimization
  • High dimensional data analysis
  • Complex systems modeling
  • Aerosol particle beam modeling
  • Fuel chemistry and technology
  • Production of synthetic fuels from unconventional and renewable feedstocks

Internal Facilities

  • Premixed Laminar Flame Burner
  • Shock-tube
  • Gas chromatography-mass spectrometers (GC/MS)
  • Time-of-flight aerosol mass spectrometer (ToF-AMS)
  • Laser trace gas monitors
  • Scanning mobility particle sizer (SMPS)
  • Laser-induced fluorescence (LIF)
  • Simulated plume aging system
  • Chemical quick-quench sampling system
  • LED-induced fluorescence device

Numerical Modeling Capabilities

  • Chemical Kinetics Packages coupled to Flow Solvers
  • Aerosol Microphysical Models of Nucleation, Condensation, and Coagulation
  • Flame Models, Perfectly-Stirred Reactors, and Plug-Flow Simulation
  • Gas Turbine Engine Cycle Simulation
  • Parallelized Beowulf Computational System – PC/Linux/MPI/LAM
  • High-performance, graphics processing unit (GPU) computational system
  • Comparative transportation emissions database
  • High Dimensional Model Representation (HDMR)

Specialized External Resources

  • NASA Glenn PSL Engine Test Facility
    • NASA Glenn’s Particle Aerosol Laboratory (SE-11)
    • NASA Glenn’s Flame Tube Combustor (CE-5)
  • AEDC Engine Test Facilities
  • MIT Gas Turbine Laboratory Flow and Thermal Facilities